DIGEST OF DECISIONS

OF THE IOWA CIVIL RIGHTS COMMISSION,

THE IOWA DISTRICT COURTS

AND THE IOWA APPELLATE COURTS

 


AREA OF JURISDICTION (Agency contested Case Decisions Only).

Employment.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol
Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Frank Robinson II (Attorney's Fee Decision)
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A. Montz
Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Housing.

Dorene Polton.

Public Accommodation.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


BASIS OF COMPLAINT (Agency Contested Case Decisions Only).

Aiding and Abetting (includes retaliation).

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Age.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

James A. Montz

Disability.

Ronald E. Nicol

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases).

Race.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Frank Robinson II

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Sex.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


INCIDENTS OF ALLEGED DISCRIMINATION AND RETALIATION (Agency Contested Case Decisions
Only).

Assignment of Job Duties.

Ruth Miller

Constructive Discharge.

Ronald E. Nicol

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases).

Constructive Eviction.

Dorene Polton

Denial of Grievance.

Ruth Miller


Disability Harassment.

Ronald E. Nicol


Discriminatory Advertising.

Dorene Polton


Discharge.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Equal Pay.

Frank Robinson I


Failure to Accommodate Disability in Employment.

Ronald E. Nicol


Failure to Consider/Hire/Promote.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz


Failure to Provide Equal Services.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Job Title.

Ruth Miller


Physical Abuse (Retaliation).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)(Proposed)


Racial Harassment/Racially Hostile Working Environment.

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Racial Harassment/Racially Hostile Housing Environment.

Dorene Polton


Scheduling and Shift Changes.

Ruth Miller


Sexual Favoritism.

Ruth Miller


Sexual Harassment/Sexually Hostile Working Environment.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Termination of Employment.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Termination of Lease.

Dorene Polton


Verbal Abuse (Retaliation).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Warnings and Reprimands.

Ruth Miller

Dorene Polton


ADMINISTRATIVE LAW.
Administrative Rules.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A. Montz


Affidavit for Disqualification of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedmari Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Bias of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)(Proposed


Combination of Functions.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Contested Case.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Constitutionality of Statute - Administrative Agency Not have Power to Determine

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton


Directory Requirement.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Due Process.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases).


Hearing - "A Meaningful Time" and "in a Meaningful Manner".

Ruth Miller


Mandatory Requirement.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Motion for Change of Venue and Reassignment of ALJ.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Notice of Hearing.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz


Official Notice.

John Mack Burton

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).


Presumption of Impartiality of Administrative Law Judge.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Rules of Civil Procedure - Applicability to Administrative Hearings.

Ruth Miller

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Separation of Functions.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Standing to Sue Doctrine.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

 

DEFENSES (BOTH VALID AND INVALID).
Advice of Counsel
.

James A. Montz


Acquiescence.

James A. Montz


Agency Rule.

James A. Montz

Attorney General's Opinion.

James A. Montz

Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ).

James A. Montz

Business Necessity.

James A. Montz


Conduct Not "Unwelcome" in Harassment Cases.

Royd Jackman

Contingent Fee Agreement.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Equitable Estoppel of the State or State Agency.

James A. Montz

Failure to Mitigate Damages.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Inadequate Notice.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Issue Preclusion.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Laches.

James A. Montz

Lack of Jurisdiction.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Legitimate Factors in a Mixed Motives Case.

James A. Montz

Legitimate Non-Discriminatory Reasons.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Nature of the Occupation Defense.

James A. Montz

Prevailing Work Environment is Discriminatory.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases).

Post Complaint Hiring of Protected Class Members.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Qualifications.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Rational Basis in Fact.

James A. Montz


Reasonable Accommodation Not Possible.

Ronald E. Nicol


Remedial Action (Defense to Harassment Charges).

Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Same Decision Defense.

James A. Montz

Statute of Limitations.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz


Statutory Exceptions.

James A. Montz

Term, Condition or Privilege of Employment - Not Affected.

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Unconstitutionally Vague Statute.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Undue Hardship.

Ronald E. Nicol

 

DEFINITIONS.
Abuse of Discretion.

Royd Jackman

Aggrieved Person.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Bias of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Burden of Persuasion.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol
Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Burden of Production.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol
Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Consensual Sexual Relationship Theory (Sexual Favoritism).

Ruth Miller

Constructive Delivery.

Dorene Polton

Constructive Discharge.

Ronald E. Nicol

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Constructive Eviction.

Dorene Polton

Contested Case.

John Mack Burton

Contingent Fees.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Continuing Violation.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Default.

John Mack Burton

Direct Evidence.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A. Montz

Disability.

Ronald E. Nicol

Disparate Impact.

James A. Montz

Disparate Treatment.

Ronald E. Nicol
Frank Robinson I

Hostile Working Environment (Racial/Sexual Harassment) Theory.

Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Impairment.

Ronald E. Nicol

Interest (of Adjudicator).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Interest (With Respect to Damages).

Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James
A. Montz

Issue Preclusion.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Judicial Notice.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A.
Montz

Legitimate Reason.

Ruth Miller

Major Life Activities.

Ronald E. Nicol

Official Notice.

John Mack Burton
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A. Montz

'Personally Know' (A Party).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Prima Facie Case.

Dorene Polton

Professional Statement.

Ruth Miller
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment Theory.

Ruth Miller

Rational Basis in Fact.

James A. Montz

Reasonable Accommodation.

Ronald E. Nicol


Reasonable Person of the Victim's Sex Standard. (Also Known as the "Reasonable Victim" or "Reasonable
Woman" Standard).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Request for Admissions.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Standing to Sue Doctrine.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Substantially Handicapped.

Ronald E. Nicol

Testimony.

Ruth Miller


EVIDENCE AND PROOF

Acquiescence By Silence.

James A. Montz


Authentication.

Ruth Miller

Burden of Persuasion.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol
Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Burden of Production.

John Mack Burton
Ronald E. Nicol
Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Circumstantial Evidence.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Ronald E. Nicol

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Credibility of Witnesses.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Cross-Examination.

Royd Jackman

Direct Evidence.

Ruth Miller
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Exclusion of Evidence.

Royd Jackman

James A. Montz

Exhibits.

Ruth Miller

Evidence of Motive, Intent, or Plan.

Ruth Miller

Evidence Taken Subject to the Objection.

Ruth Miller

James A. Montz

Expert Testimony.

James A. Montz

Judicial Notice.

John Mack Burton

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Objections.

Ruth Miller

James A. Montz

Offer ot Proof.

Royd Jackman

Official Notice.

John Mack Burton

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Order and Allocation of Proof: Disparate Treatment: Circumstantial Evidence "Pretext" Cases.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Order and Allocation of Proof: Disparate Treatment: Direct Evidence Cases.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars. Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Dorene Polton

Order and Allocation of Proof: Disparate Treatment: Mixed Motives.

James A. Montz

Order and Allocation of Proof: Failure to Accommodate.

Ronald E. Nicol

Order and Allocation of Proof: Hostile Work Environment and Harassment Cases.

Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Preponderance of the Evidence.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Presumption of Receipt of Letter.

James A. Montz

Pretext.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Prima Facie Case.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Probative Value v. Prejudicial Effect.

Ruth Miller

Professional Statement.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Acquiescence By Silence.

James A. Montz

Proof of Age Discrimination.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol


Proof of Attorney Fees.

Frank Robinson II

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Proof of Back Pay.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

James A. Montz

Proof of Bias of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Causal Connection in Retaliation Cases.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Constructive Discharge.

Ronald E. Nicol

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Constructive Eviction.

Dorene Polton

Proof of a Continuing Violation.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Disability Discrimination.

Ronald E. Nicol

Proof of Discriminatory or Retaliatory Discharge.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Disparate Treatment.

John Mack Burton

Ronald E. Nicol

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Proof of Employer Liability for Harassment By Coworkers and Supervisors.

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Landlord Liability for Harassment by Supervisors and Managers.

Dorene Polton

Proof of Emotional Distress.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Proof of Failure to Accommodate.

Ronald E. Nicol

Proof of Failure to Consider/Hire/Promote.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Failure to Mitigate Damages.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Proof of Failure to Provide Equal Services.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Legitimate Non-Discri minatory Reasons.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

Proof of Motion (Request for Action Made to ALJ).

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Proof of Pay or Wage Discrimination.

Frank Robinson I

Proof of Pretext.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton


Proof of Presumption of Receipt of Letter.

James A. Montz


Proof of Retaliation.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Proof of Sexual Harassment.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Relevancy.

Ruth Miller

James A. Montz


Request for Admissions.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Scope of Cross-Examination.

Royd Jackman


Testimony.

Ruth Miller


Unduly Repetitious Evidence.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

 

PROCEDURE AND JURISDICTION.
Affidavit for Disqualification of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Aggrieved Person.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Attorney's Fees as Discovery Sanction.

Ruth Miller


Attorney's Fees Procedure.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).


Back Pay Reduction as Discovery Sanction.

Ruth Miller


Claims Not Alleged in Complaint.

James A. Montz


Commission as a Party.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Continuing Violation.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz


Default Judgment.

John Mack Burton


Discovery.

Ruth Miller

Royd Jackman


Discovery Sanctions.

Ruth Miller

Royd Jackman


Disqualification of Adjudicator.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Exclusion of Witness as Discovery Sanction.

Royd Jackman

Filing of Complaint.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases

Motion for Change of Venue and Reasssignment of ALJ.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Offer of Proof.

Royd Jackman

Participation of Investigating Commissioner.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Parties.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Personal Jurisdiction.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
Dorene Polton
James A. Montz

Prosecutorial Discretion of Commission.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Request for Admissions.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Retained Jurisdiction.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Rules of Civil Procedure - Applicability to Administrative Hearings.

Ruth Miller

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Standing to Sue Doctrine.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Venue.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)


Withdrawal of Complaint.

REMEDIES.
Actual Damages.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz


Advertising Requirements.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz


Attorneys Fees.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Frank Robinson II

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

James A. Montz,

Back Pay.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Cease and Desist Order.

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Delay In Payment Enhancement of Fees.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Educational Programs.

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Emotional Distress Damages.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Expenses.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Factors in Attorney's Fee Awards.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).

Failure to Mitigate.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

House- Loss On Sale.

James A. Montz

In General.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Interest.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Interim Earnings.

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Moving Expenses.

James A. Montz

Posting of Notices.

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Reporting Requirements.

Ruth Miller

John Mack Burton

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Risk of Nonpayment - Enhancement of Fees.

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).


Tests.

James A. Montz

Written Policies.

Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)
James A. Montz

STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION AND CONSTRUCTION OR ADMINISTRATIVE RULES.

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

James A. Montz

Mike DeVolder (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases) (attorney's fee decision).


THEORIES OF DISCRIMINATION.

Consensual Sexual Relationship Theory (Sexual Favoritism).

Ruth Miller

Disparate Impact.

James A. Montz


Disparate Treatment.

John Mack Burton

Ruth Miller

Frank Robinson I

Royd Jackman

Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Dorene Polton

James A. Montz

Failure to Accommodate.

Ronald E. Nicol


Hostile Working Environment - Racial/Sexual/Retaliatory Harassment Theory.

Ruth Miller
Frank Robinson I
Royd Jackman
Cristen Harms (Friedman Motorcars, Ltd. Cases)

Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment Theory.

Ruth Miller